In order to limit the losses due to attacks on the flocks and the caprine herds as much as possible, measures of protection/prevention were put in place as soon as the first reports of damages were drawn up.
They were at first proposed to the breeders of the Mercantour National Park (the territory of the first packs in France) and then, after the colonization of neighbour départements, subsidized in the framework of the first European LIFE programme (1997-1999). When it ended, a second LIFE programme (2000-2003) allowed prolonging the implementation of protective means while extending them to the newly colonized départements. In accordance to the spirit of these LIFE programmes, it was above all question of testing the protective means before generalizing better technical solutions.
In 2004, the implementation of protective means was increased by their inclusion in the National Rural Development Plan (NPDP), co-financed by the European Union, and called the "measure T". For the 2007-2013 period, the French Rural Development Plan replaces the NPDP; the protective measures are still subsidized in this context through the "323 C measure".
Four measures belong to this framework: the gathering pens, the reinforced grazing pens, the protection dogs and the support to herding. The combination of these measures reinforces their efficiency.
In order to adapt the protective measures to the local situation, the vulnerability analysis can be funded with the 323 C measure.
The terms presented here were current in 2010.
Technicians of the Directions Départementales de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt ensure a support to the breeders for the implementation of protective means.
Historically, the aids of the Mercantour National Park and the European LIFE programmes concerned the zones of permanent presence of wolves. Since the "nationalization" of protective measures in 2004, a double zoning was created to target these protective measures on the most involved areas:
the "circle 1" groups together the towns where the presence of wolves is regularly detected;
the "circle 2" groups together towns located next to the circle 1 and likely to be colonized by wolves in the short-run.
- Evolution of the circles 1 and 2 between 2004 and 2010
In the areas where the presence of wolves is not proven or expectable on the short-run, which can be the case for the circle 2, the Ministry of Agriculture implemented emergency measures, which allowed the financing of protective measures as soon as difficulties linked to wolves appeared.
- Quoi De Neuf n°11 - p.18: Article debating on the implementation of protective measures after the LIFE: implementation of a policy concerning pastoralism and predators and of the measure t of the NDPD (in French)
- Quoi De Neuf n°12 - p.2: Publication of the wolf policy 2004-2008 aiming at supporting the breeders parallel to the progression of the wolf population (in French)
- Quoi De Neuf n°15 - p.19: Report of the measure t and discussion of its continuity after the NDPD (in French)
- Circular of December 8th 2009: Protective measures of the herds against predation implemented in the framework of the integrated device in favour of pastoralism (323 C) of French Rural Development Plan (in French)